Navigating Regulatory Compliance in Egypt

Egypt has a complex regulatory framework encompassing various sectors, industries, and business operations. Compliance requirements in Egypt may vary depending on the nature of the business, industry, and size of the company. Companies need to understand and adhere to these regulations to avoid penalties and damage to reputations. 

Overview of Regulatory Compliance in Egypt

Benefits of regulatory compliance for Egyptian companies

By embracing compliance as a core business principle, companies can thrive in the Egyptian market and contribute to a sustainable and ethical business environment.

Compliance with the Law: Regulatory compliance ensures that companies operate within the bounds of the law. By adhering to relevant regulations, businesses can avoid legal repercussions, penalties, fines, or even potential shutdowns.

Reputation and Trust:  Demonstrating a commitment to ethical practices and regulatory compliance enhances a company’s image, attracting and retaining customers and partners who value responsible and compliant business operations.

Business Stability and Continuity: Compliance allows companies to navigate complex regulatory environments and adapt to changing legal requirements. By following applicable laws and standards, companies can create a stable operating environment and reduce the likelihood of unexpected disruptions or interventions from regulatory authorities.

Competitive Advantage: Regulatory compliance can provide a competitive advantage for Egyptian companies. Compliance can differentiate a company from its competitors and open doors to new business opportunities, partnerships, and access to markets that require strict adherence to regulations.

Investor Confidence: Investors seek assurance that the companies they invest in operate with integrity and adhere to legal and regulatory requirements. Compliance demonstrates good governance practices, transparency, and accountability, attracting potential investors and facilitating access to capital markets.

Key regulatory bodies in Egypt

 To keep companies in compliance in Egypt, some key regulatory bodies and agencies ensure this, and they vary depending on the sector and industry a company operates in. The following are just a few examples of some of the key regulatory bodies in Egypt.

  • General Authority for Investment and Free Zones (GAFI): GAFI is the main regulatory body responsible for promoting and regulating investment in Egypt. It facilitates investment procedures, grants investment approvals, provides investment incentives, and supports the development of free zones.
  • Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA): The Egyptian Tax Authority is responsible for administering and enforcing tax laws in Egypt. It oversees the collection of various taxes, including income tax, value-added tax (VAT), customs duties, and other levies. ETA also handles tax registration, assessments, audits, and dispute resolutions.
  • Financial Regulatory Authority (FRA): The FRA is the regulatory body that oversees and regulates the non-banking financial sector in Egypt. It supervises activities related to insurance, capital markets, non-banking financial institutions, and mortgage finance.

Legal Framework and Regulatory Environment in Egypt

 An investor’s decision to open a business in a foreign nation is heavily influenced by the legal system there as well as by how simple it will be to conduct business there once the company is up and running. The Egyptian laws that govern business operations, employment and labor relations, taxation, intellectual property rights, and competition are those that are most important to international investors. 

  1. Company registration and licensing requirements

The four types of companies that foreigners who want to incorporate a business in Egypt commonly choose are

  • Limited liability businesses (LLCs),
  • Joint stock companies (JSCs),
  • Sole person companies (SPCs),
  • Foreign branch.
  • However, JSCs have long been the first choice for foreign investors because they can be entirely managed by a foreign corporation. However, foreigners may also own 100% of LLCs and SPCs.

Main documents needed for incorporation in Egypt

  • A certificate from GAFI confirming trade name clearance.
  • A bank certificate by the capital depositing.
  • Power of attorneys and original for establishment.
  • Copies of partners’ and Egyptian managers’ IDs, as well as copies of foreign managers’ passports.
  • Original copy of the auditor account
  1. Labor laws and employment regulations

The Egyptian Labour Law No. 12 of 2003 (Labour Law) is the primary law governing employment and labor relations in Egypt. Its purpose is to protect the rights and interests of workers and establish the obligations of employers.

 Here are some key aspects of labor laws and employment regulations in Egypt:

  • Working Hours: The standard working hours in Egypt are 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week. However, certain industries or jobs may have specific working hour arrangements based on sector-specific regulations or collective agreements. Overtime work is subject to additional compensation as per the Labor Law.
  • Minimum Wage: The government sets a minimum wage that employers must adhere to. The minimum wage is determined by the National Council for Wages and is periodically revised.
  • Leave Entitlements: Employees in Egypt are entitled to various types of leaves, including annual leave, sick leave, and maternity leave. The Labor Law specifies the minimum durations and conditions for each type of leave.
  • Termination of Employment: The Labor Law regulates the termination of employment contracts and provides rights and procedures for both employers and employees. It outlines conditions for termination with or without cause, notice periods, severance pay, and procedures for disciplinary actions.
  • Non-Discrimination and Equal Opportunity: The Labor Law prohibits discrimination in employment based on factors such as gender, age, religion, disability, or political affiliation. It promotes equal opportunities and fair treatment for all employees.

3. Taxation laws and obligations

The Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA) administers and enforces laws governing the levying and collecting of taxes on individuals and companies in Egypt. In Egypt, there are different types of taxes levied on businesses and individuals, but they can be generally classified as direct and indirect taxes.

Direct taxes are those imposed on an individual’s or an organisation’s income or earnings and are non-transferable. Examples include capital gains tax, income, or corporate tax. In contrast, corporations serve as tax collectors for indirect taxes, and eventually, the end user or final customer is responsible for paying them. VAT and excise tax are examples of indirect taxes.

Businesses and individuals must file tax returns and report their income and transactions to the ETA within specified deadlines. Penalties may apply for late or incorrect filings.

Example of some taxes payable in Egypt

  • Corporate Income Tax: Companies operating in Egypt are subject to corporate income tax on their profits. The standard corporate tax rate is 22.5% for Egyptian companies and 25% for branches of foreign companies. Certain industries, such as petroleum, natural gas, and mining, may have specific tax rates and incentives.
  • Withholding Tax: Withholding tax is levied on certain payments made by businesses to individuals or other entities. Common types of withholding tax include dividends, interest, royalties, and fees for technical services. The rates vary based on the type of payment and the recipient’s residency status.
  • Payroll Taxes and Social Insurance: Employers are required to withhold and remit payroll taxes on employees’ salaries, including income tax and social insurance contributions. Social insurance contributions fund various benefits, including pensions, health insurance, and unemployment benefits. The employer contribution is 18.75% while the employee share is 11% 
  • Value-Added Tax (VAT): VAT is imposed on the supply of goods and services in Egypt. The standard VAT rate is 14%, with reduced rates of 5% and 0% applicable to specific categories of goods and services. Businesses meeting certain turnover thresholds are required to register for VAT.

4. Intellectual property rights protection

Intellectual property rights (IPR) are a company‚Äôs most valuable assets. It is essential in safeguarding not only the company’s brand but also the rights it derives from the goods and services that it manufactures and markets.

Egypt has always recognized the value of IP protection and how it directly contributes to providing a favorable environment for investors. The Egyptian Constitution ensures the protection of Intellectual and Industrial Rights in addition to being one of the forerunners in the enactment of IPR-protecting legislation. Intellectual Property Rights Law was approved in May 2002 and the goal of the law was to bring Egypt’s legal IPR framework into compliance with its WTO Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement and increase foreign direct investment.


Understanding the complex compliance structure in Egypt is fundamental to running a successful business in Egypt. You can also read about the financial compliance requirements for companies in Egypt to learn more.

Incorporate your business with Norebase today and stay ahead of the curve on regulations, and legal compliance. We have built a software, Autocomply, that provides prompt update on new regulations, deadlines on filings and also can assist your company to stay 100% compliant.

Join the waitlist here.

One thought on “Navigating Regulatory Compliance in Egypt

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: